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|Systems and Technology Area|
INFSCI 2000 INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION SCIENCE
Overview of the history, academic roots, conceptual structure, and methodology of information science. Explores principles and concepts that underlie information processing, including information theory, models of information storage and retrieval, and human cognition. Basic processes of information systems analysis, design, and development.
INFSCI 2020 MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE
Basic concepts of theoretical mathematics needed to understand theoretical work in information science, with exception of probability and statistics. In particular, concepts from set theory, graph theory, combinatorics, logic, abstract algebra, topology, and mathematical analysis. Some facility with mathematics is expected.
INFSCI 2040 RESEARCH DESIGN
Beginning research design with emphasis on the basic process of inquiry. Identifying and articulating research problems, determining and describing procedures for conducting research, designing data-collecting procedures, formulating testable hypotheses, interpreting and drawing conclusions from data analysis, and reporting research findings and implications.
INFSCI 2120 INFORMATION AND CODING THEORY
Includes measures of information, information sources, joint and conditional uncertainty, noiseless and deterministic channels, reliable messages through unreliable channels, channel capacities, properties of codes, minimal codes, and error-detecting and error-correcting codes. Examines entropy as a measure of semantic content.
INFSCI 2125 NETWORK SCIENCE AND ANALYSIS (Cross listed with TELCOM 2215)
This course explores networks as a primary metaphor and mechanism for a variety of information-related phenomena. The advancement of interconnected information and communication technologies has made networks one of the dominant ways of analyzing the use and flow of information among individuals, institutions, and societies. The course starts with the basis of graph theory and moves to understand network structures such as social networks, ecological webs, IT and infrastructure systems, telecommunications networks, and market distribution and allocation structures. As a prerequisite, students should have a command of mathematics through linear and matrix algebra at the undergraduate level.
INFSCI 2130 DECISION ANALYSIS AND DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (Cross listed with ISSP 2430)
Introduction to decision analysis with elements of human cognition under uncertainty, including structuring decision problems and developing creative decision options, quantifying uncertainty and preferences, and combining uncertainty and preferences to arrive at optimal decisions. Foundations needed for applying the methods of decision analysis in decision support systems. NOTE: Can also be used to fulfill distribution requirement in Cognitive Science area.
INFSCI 2135 PROBABILISTIC METHODS FOR COMPUTER-BASED DECISION SUPPORT
Computational approaches to probabilistic and decision-theoretic inference. Particular focus on the use of Bayesian networks and influence diagrams. Medical applications of these techniques and representations are emphasized. (Prerequisite: permission of instructor) Previously numbered INFSCI 2825.
INFSCI 2140 INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL
Problems and techniques related to storing and accessing unstructured information with an emphasis on textual information. Overview of several approaches to information access with a primary focus on search-based information access. Covers automated retrieval system design, content analysis, retrieval models, result presentation, and system evaluation. Examines applications of retrieval techniques on the Web, in multimedia and multilingual environments, and in text classification and event tracking.
INFSCI 2150 INFORMATION SECURITY AND PRIVACY (Cross listed with TELCOM 2810)
Fundamental issues and first principles of security and information assurance. Security policies, models, and mechanisms related to confidentiality, integrity, authentication, identification, and availability issues related to information and information systems. Basics of cryptography such as key management and digital signatures, etc. and network security such as PKI, IPSec, intrusion detection and prevention. Risk management, security assurance, and secure design principles. Issues such as organizational security policy, legal and ethical issues in security, standards and methodologies for security evaluation and certification. (Pre-requisite: TELCOM 2000 or permission of instructor)
INFSCI 2160 DATA MINING
This course will introduce the core data mining concepts and practical skills for applying data mining techniques to solve real-world problems. Topics cover major data mining problems as different types of computational tasks (prediction, classification, clustering, etc.) and the algorithms appropriate for addressing these tasks, as well as systematic evaluation and model assessment. Students are expected to design and implement data mining applications using real-world datasets, and to leverage cloud-computing services to build big data analytics projects.
INFSCI 2170 CRYPTOGRAPHY (Cross listed with TELCOM 2820)
Principles of number theory, cryptographic algorithms and cryptanalysis. Steganography, block and stream ciphers, secret key encryption (DES, RES, RE-N), primes, random numbers, factoring, and discrete logarithms. Public key encryption (RSA, Diffie-Helman, elliptical curve cryptography, N'TRU); key management, hash functions (MD5, SHA-1, RIPEMD-160, HMAC), digital signatures, certificates and authentication protocols. Cryptanalytic methods (known, chosen plaintext etc.) for secret and public key schemes (linear and differential cryptanalysis, Pollard's rho method, number field sieve, etc.).
INFSCI 2180 KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION AND THE SEMANTIC WEB
Introduction to core ideas of knowledge representation and reasoning, including: predicate logic, resolution, rule-based reasoning, object-based and description-based representations, inheritance and default reasoning, semantic web languages from XML to OWL, ontology development, and issues concerning representation of dimensions of the physical and social worlds.
TELCOM 2130 QUEUING THEORY
Development and application of the mathematical techniques used for analyzing the performance of communications networks. Topics include: Markovian queues, Non-Markovian queues, products from networks, approximation techniques, non stationary queues. (Prerequisites: TELCOM 2120, 2310)
INFSCI 2205 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATIONS FOR INFORMATION SCIENCES
An English language support course for international students in SIS who are non-native speakers of English. Helps develop students' academic vocabulary, language comprehension, and writing proficiency. Also addresses issues of academic integrity and plagiarism. (Placement in class determined by the English Language Proficiency Test)
INFSCI 2210 INFORMATION ETHICS
Digital-age intersection of information and ethics with emphasis on key areas of intellectual property, privacy, confidentiality, authenticity, plagiarism, diversity/inclusion and special populations, accessibility, intellectual freedom, censorship, social networking, cyberbullying, security, preservation, transparency, accountability, policy making, and professionalism. Ethical theories and application of ethical decision-making models to real-world library and information center scenarios. Analysis of codes of ethics. Issues and resources related to creation, implementation, enforcement, and assessment of institutional ethical codes. (Cross listed with LIS 2194 and TELCOM 2515)
INFSCI 2220 INFORMATION POLICY
Introduction to information policy with a focus on U.S. federal policies. Issues and challenges faced in developing and implementing policies within organizations and companies, including the protection and use of intellectual property, First Amendment concerns, access to public information, security and the protection of privacy of personally identifiable information. (Cross listed with LIS 2186 and TELCOM 2512)
INFSCI 2230 CYBERCRIME
This course examines legal and policy aspects of computer and electronic crimes and related issues. The primary focus will be on modern "cybercrime," including the legal frameworks, prosecutorial tools/discretion, and other measures available for deterring, investigating, prosecuting and punishing criminal acts which leverage, target, or otherwise involve modern information systems. Topics will include "hacking," electronic surveillance, the Fourth Amendment and technology, digital forensics, cyberbullying, identity theft, electronic espionage, cyberterrorism, digital copyright and related issues, privacy, the era of "forced disclosure," and the challenge of cross-jurisdiction enforcement. (Cross listed with LAW 5380)
INFSCI 2821 FOUNDATIONS OF CLINICAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH INFORMATICS
Survey of fundamental concepts and activities of information technology applied to health care. Topics include computer-based medical records, knowledge-based systems, telehealth, decision theory and decision support, human-computer interfaces, systems integration, the digital library, and educational applications. Department-specific applications such as pathology, radiology, psychiatry and intensive care are also discussed. (Prerequisite: permission of instructor)
TELCOM 2510 U.S. TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY
A historical review of U.S. telecommunications policy, including both theoretical objectives and practice. The role of the various U.S. governmental agencies in the development of the telecommunications environment. Recent developments. (Prerequisites: TELCOM 2000/2100 or INFSCI 1070)
INFSCI 2300 HUMAN INFORMATION PROCESSING
Introduction to research and theory in human cognition, including perception, attention, pattern recognition, memory, representation of knowledge, language, problem solving, reasoning, and decision making, with emphasis on modeling human cognition and implications for user interface design and design of intelligent systems.
INFSCI 2350 HUMAN FACTORS IN SYSTEMS
Introduces principles for analysis of human performance in human-machine systems. Emphasis on principles of human factors as applied to the design of systems other than the graphical user interface (GUI) that is covered in Interactive Systems INFSCI 2470.
INFSCI 2410 INTRODUCTION TO NEURAL NETWORKS
Introduces mathematical and computer techniques used in constructing models of information processing by parallel distributed processing (PDP) networks; principles of input-output functions and adaptation (learning) functions in single units and in networks; examines the relation between PDP networks, neurobiology, artificial intelligence, and cognition.
INFSCI 2415 INFORMATION VISUALIZATION (cross-listed with LIS 2690)
Visualization is a way to explore, present and express meaning in data, so there is no visualization without data. This course aims to investigate what data presents and how to present data. It will introduce concepts, methods and procedures of data visualization, with emphasis on the creative process of organizing, visualizing, communicating and interacting information. Students are expected to design and implement visualization systems using real-world datasets, and evaluate the systems in practical scenarios.
INFSCI 2420 NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING
Overview of computational approaches to natural language processing including issues in syntax, semantics, and pragmatics, as well as overall system architectures. (Prerequisites: INFSCI 2300, 2500)
INFSCI 2430 SOCIAL COMPUTING (Cross listed with ISSP 2430)
Introduction to key theories and technologies of social computing. Reviews major types of social computing systems. Several social computing systems are explored and used throughout the course. Final group project focuses on designing and implementing a social web system.
INFSCI 2440 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Introduction to core ideas in Artificial Intelligence including search, logic and deduction, reasoning systems, knowledge representation, expert systems, planning, machine learning and language understanding. (Prerequisites: INFSCI 2300, 2500)
INFSCI 2460 SPATIAL REASONING FOR GIS
Fundamental issues in qualitative spatial reasoning, spatial languages, and spatial decision-making. Applications of spatial reasoning including problems of navigation and interface issues for GIS.
INFSCI 2470 INTERACTIVE SYSTEM DESIGN
Introduction to principles and techniques of interactive system design. Emphasis on practical skills of user interface design and evaluation. Builds a connection between human information processing and interactive system design practice, reviews interactive programming for major interface paradigms, and covers main analysis and evaluation techniques of modern usability engineering. Focuses on GUI and Internet programming techniques and project-based experience in the design and evaluation of practical user interfaces.
INFSCI 2480 ADAPTIVE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Introduces key principles of adaptive information systems and modern techniques for user modeling and personalization. Covers the construction of user models and user profiles. Examines the use of various personalization techniques such as adaptive search, recommendation, and navigation support. Reviews major types of adaptive information systems and explores important application areas.
INFSCI 2500 DATA STRUCTURES
Theory and application of data structures, queues, stacks, linked lists, trees, graphs, searching, sorting, and Polish notation. Data and file structures and their appropriateness to various applications.
INFSCI 2510 INFORMATION SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
Requirements management; best practices in eliciting, documenting and verifying requirements; writing effective use cases; construction of UML-compliant models (class, state and activity diagrams); specification of user interface and data layers; rapid prototyping.
INFSCI 2511 INFORMATION SYSTEMS DESIGN
Object-oriented design best practices; principles of system architecture; design patterns; requirements traceability; construction of UML-compliant models (class, sequence, communication and package diagrams); refactoring; iterative development of system prototype. Requires knowledge of fundamental OO programming concepts including abstract classes, interfaces, inheritance, polymorphism, and message passing. (Prerequisite: INFSCI 2510)
INFSCI 2540 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
Critical analysis of leading iterative software development processes; TSP/PSP, Unified Process, Extreme Programming and related agile processes; enterprise management and control of software projects (CMM and COBIT); configuration and change management; quality assurance and testing.
INFSCI 2545 SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE
Modern software testing and quality assurance. Covers: testing theory, manual and automated tests, test- driven and behavior-driven development, performance testing, security testing, and understanding and developing a testing process. The course is project-oriented, with students working in groups on specific deliverables on various software products.
INFSCI 2550 CLIENT-SERVER SYSTEMS
Analysis and design of distributed communication systems. Emphasis on distributed applications and various protocols used in such applications. Explores algorithms for iterative and concurrent server designs as well as the design of client application level protocols. (Prerequisites: INFSCI 2500)
INFSCI 2560 WEB TECHNOLOGIES AND STANDARDS
Covers core technologies and standards for distributed systems, especially Web-based distributed systems. Includes an overview of the standardization process and the standards organizations. Looks at network and data standards with significant attention to HTML,XML, http, URL and other web technologies including APIs to programming with them.
INFSCI 2591 ALGORITHM DESIGN
Fundamentals of algorithm design, including greedy algorithms, divide-and-conquer algorithms, dynamic programming, heuristics and approximate algorithms, parallel and distributed algorithms, multi-dimensional data structures, time complexity of algorithms, and development of programs from algorithms. (Prerequisite: INFSCI 2500, Also meets Foundation requirement)
INFSCI 2620 DEVELOPING SECURE SYSTEMS
Design and implementation of secure systems. Principles and practice of trustworthy computing, secure and high-assurance software development process and lifecycle models. Secure software design using UMLsec, secure design of operating systems and network services, database and applications. Secure Webs services, COTS-based and service-oriented systems. Software assurance tools and techniques such as code analysis and testing, evaluation and certification of software. Secure programming techniques. (Prerequisite: INFSCI 2150)
INFSCI 2621 SECURITY MANAGEMENT AND COMPUTER FORENSICS (Title change effective Fall 2016) (Cross listed with TELCOM 2813)
Administration and management of security of enterprise information systems and networks. Principles and tools related to intrusion detection systems, vulnerability analysis, anomaly detection, computer forensics, application logging, auditing and data management, risk management, contingency planning and incident handling, digital immune systems, and alarms and responses. Security standards, evaluation and certification process; security planning, ethical and legal issues in information; privacy, traceability and cyber-evidence. (Prerequisites: INFSCI 2150, TELCOM 2821)
INFSCI 2625 CYBERSECURITY & PRIVACY REGULATION
This course examines the legal frameworks in place to protect consumer privacy and maintain necessary information security protections for privately owned and operated infrastructure, with a strong focus on regulatory and compliance issues. Taught collaboratively with the Schools of Law and Information Sciences, students will collaborate on projects simulating the types of problems both legal and technical professionals confront in actual practice. Some individual writing will be required, and a written paper option may be available for students in lieu of group projects with the consent of the Instructor. Topics covered will include the privacy and information security regulatory activity of the Federal Trade Commission, the Department of Health and Human Services, federal financial regulators, and other state and federal actors. A basic introduction to the concepts of cyberlaw, the Internet, and other information technologies will be provided, and other topics will include the data breach notification regime, the role of computer crime law in information security, and other exigent privacy and security policy topics.
INFSCI 2629 CAPSTONE IN SECURITY
Integrative class for masters students in their final semester of the SAIS track. Combination of business and technical case studies and group projects. Case studies focus on business/economics aspects of providing information assurance and how this service impacts technology. Group projects involve design and development of a prototype secure and survivable information system including application development, system deployment, system optimization and system economics. (Prerequisites: INFSCI 2150/TELCOM 2810, TELCOM 2821)
INFSCI 2640 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND ENVIRONMENTS
A comparative study of four types of computer languages: control structured, list processing, logic processing, and object oriented. The course contrasts the language types with respect to the expression of programs, data models, execution models, naming and abstraction, and interactive programs. (Prerequisites: INFSCI 2500)
TELCOM 2000 and TELCOM 2821 are pre-approved as Systems and Technology Area courses. Additional Telecommunications courses numbered 2010-2399 may be used to meet the Systems and Technology Requirement with permission of the advisor. See Telecommunications course descriptions for prerequisites and co-requisites.
INFSCI 2710 DATABASE MANAGEMENT
Basic graduate course on database systems. Centralized relational database systems with emphasis on database design, implementation, and administration. Comprehensive coverage of SQL, data modeling, normalization, storage management, transaction management, and query evaluation. Students will develop practical skills in building and maintaining realistic medium-scale database systems. Also covers more advanced topics including data warehousing and OLAP. (Prerequisite: INFSCI 2500)
INFSCI 2711 ADVANCED TOPICS IN DATABASE MANAGEMENT
Advanced graduate course on database systems. Key issues that typically arise in the context of large-scale enterprise database management in heterogeneous wide-area environments including distributed and non-relational database systems, network-centric data management, Web-based information systems, heterogeneous databases, information integration, and wireless data management. (Prerequisite: INFSCI 2710)
INFSCI 2725 DATA ANALYTICS
Introduction to fundamental technologies underlying distributed storage and efficient analysis of very large amounts of data. An overview of approaches to extracting information and knowledge from data, verification, testing, and presentation of results.
INFSCI 2730 E-BUSINESS
Conceptualization of e-business in the context of markets, business practices, and information theory. Implementation of e-business web sites and services via various programming languages. Examines various models for online consumer systems, business-to-business systems, and enterprise computing—e.g., supply-chain models. Covers related technologies in document processing, telecommunications, and security. (Prerequisites: INFSCI 2500, 2560 and 2710)
INFSCI 2731 SECURITY IN E-COMMERCE
Covers the technology, concepts, issues and principles that are important in the design and implementation of secure e‑commerce systems. Examines technology for protecting electronic commerce. It will include discussion of basic security principles, as well as the issues, policy and standards particular to e‑commerce applications. (Prerequisites: INFSCI 2560, 2150 (co-requisite), 2730 and 2550)
INFSCI 2739 WEB SERVICES AND DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING
Looks at advanced techniques to client server computing. Covers design techniques necessary for organizing very large Web sites. Integrates the knowledge and skills from e-business and web technologies to develop a functioning distributed application using web services, RMI, RSS, AJAX, etc. (Prerequisites: INFSCI 2550 and 2730)
INFSCI 2750 CLOUD COMPUTING
This course provides an overview of the concepts and design principles behind existing cloud solutions. Topics include large scale data processing techniques such as Mapreduce/Hadoop and its related ecosystem, overview of virtualized commercial cloud models, system virtualization, hypervisors and virtualized platforms. Design of cloud storage systems such as key-value stores and geographically distributed storage systems. Introduction to security and privacy issues in cloud computing, issues of data and execution privacy in modern commercial cloud services.
INFSCI 2780 INTERACTIVE GRAPHICS
Computer graphics, point-plotting techniques, line-drawing display, clipping and windowing, display lines, geometric models, picture structure, graphic-input devices and techniques, event handling, raster graphics, solid-area scan conversion, three-dimensional graphics, shading, and user-interface design related to the associated behavioral factors in INFSCI 2300 and INFSCI 2350. (Prerequisites: INFSCI 2500)
INFSCI 2801 GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS)
Introduction to the fundamentals of GIS. Topics include GIS components, geospatial data structures, geospatial databases, geospatial data integration and conversion, overlay analysis, proximity analysis, network analysis, buffering, topology, and GIS tools (hardware and software).
INFSCI 2802 LOCATION-BASED SERVICES
Internet GIS, distributed geoprocessing on the Internet, mobile GIS, location-based services, navigation systems and services, social networking, and a selection of emerging applications possible through mobile GIS and location-based services.
INFSCI 2809 SPATIAL DATA ANALYTICS
Geospatial data collection, geospatial data structures and indexing, geospatial analysis, geospatial data quality, data structures and algorithms for surfaces, spatiotemporal databases, and digital terrain modeling.
Independent studies are intended to cover advanced material outside of or beyond the scope of current course offerings.
INDEPENDENT STUDY (1–3 credits)
Prerequisites: permission of faculty advisor and study sponsor
These courses are offered on specialized and current topics.
Machine Learning Introduction to machine learning such as designing a machine learning system, learning settings and tasks, decision trees, k-nearest-neighbor estimation; Mathematical foundations including linear algebra, probability theory, statistical tests; Kernel Machines: kernels, reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces, representer theorem, support vector machines for classification, regression and ranking, kernel construction, kernels for structured data; Clustering methods such as k-means, hierarchical clustering, spectral clustering, evaluation metrics; Statistical Learning Theory including PAC learning, consistency, VC dimension, generalization and models comparison; Applications to image and video categorization.
Toward a Science of Cybersecurity This course, in broad strokes, investigates the prospects for the development of a science of cybersecurity. The course will focus upon the use of experimentation in science, as well as a coarse-grained general survey of scientific practice. Our driving questions will include (among others):
Can there be a science of Cybersecurity? How can Cybersecurity operate at the level of prediction, as opposed to the level of classification? What distinguishes an endeavor as scientific? What factors contribute to the success of an experiment? Should experimentation in cybersecurity differ fundamentally from experimentation in traditional sciences?
We will be dedicated to identifying some of the features that characterize science, to recognizing some of the foundational obstacles faced by scientists, and to understanding what it means to implement (for example) internal validity, external validity, and replication/recreation in one's experimental practice.
Digital Scholarship (Cross-listed with INFSCI 3150, LIS 2975, & LIS 3970) Contemporary research and scholarship is increasingly characterized by the use large-scale datasets and computationally intensive tasks. Vast amounts of data are used by scholars to better map the cosmos, build more accurate earth system models, examine in finer detail the structures of living organisms, and gain new insights into the behaviors of societies and individuals in a complex world. Similarly, humanists are rapidly integrating newly digitized corpora, digital representation of cultural artifacts and spatial and temporal indexed data into their scholarly endeavors. This course will chart the development of digital scholarship from the beginning of the use of models and abstracted forms to conceptualize and represent knowledge and physical phenomena to state-of-the-art projects today that are transforming the nature of inquiry in many disciplinary domains. The course will be descriptive in nature. The goal will be to understand digital scholarship in terms of high-level methodological approaches and conceptual frameworks as well as to examine the technological, academic and social contexts that underpin successful endeavors. Case studies of exemplary state-of-the-art projects will be the vehicle for exploring the ways in which scholars, using internet-based open data, technologies and tools are dramatically expanding the problem space of domain scholarship in many areas and creating new methods for analysis of information and presentation of research results. A focus will also be on the natural role of collaboration and communication in digital scholarship. Class assignments will be tailored for each student to meet their interests and support their career goals.
INFSCI 2980 PRACTICUM
For students who desire experience in applying the knowledge and skills acquired in their course work and laboratory sessions. Students are responsible for arranging employment with a business or organization. (Prerequisites: completion of 18 credits and permission of instructor)
The thesis is a report of original, theoretical, or laboratory work suitable for publication. (Prerequisites: completion of 24 credits and permission of advisor)
INFSCI 3005 INTRO TO DOCTORAL PROGRAM
An introduction to the purpose and nature of doctoral studies in information science, theories and processes in scholarly research and the current state of research in the discipline. Graduate faculty in the program will present and discuss their current interests with students.
Analysis of journal articles, books, and conference proceedings involving issues in information science. Techniques for preparing for the preliminary and comprehensive examinations.
Digital Scholarship (Cross-listed with INFSCI 2965, LIS 2975, & LIS 3970) Contemporary research and scholarship is increasingly characterized by the use large-scale datasets and computationally intensive tasks. Vast amounts of data are used by scholars to better map the cosmos, build more accurate earth system models, examine in finer detail the structures of living organisms, and gain new insights into the behaviors of societies and individuals in a complex world. Similarly, humanists are rapidly integrating newly digitized corpora, digital representation of cultural artifacts and spatial and temporal indexed data into their scholarly endeavors. This course will chart the development of digital scholarship from the beginning of the use of models and abstracted forms to conceptualize and represent knowledge and physical phenomena to state-of-the-art projects today that are transforming the nature of inquiry in many disciplinary domains. The course will be descriptive in nature. The goal will be to understand digital scholarship in terms of high-level methodological approaches and conceptual frameworks as well as to examine the technological, academic and social contexts that underpin successful endeavors. Case studies of exemplary state-of-the-art projects will be the vehicle for exploring the ways in which scholars, using internet-based open data, technologies and tools are dramatically expanding the problem space of domain scholarship in many areas and creating new methods for analysis of information and presentation of research results. A focus will also be on the natural role of collaboration and communication in digital scholarship. Class assignments will be tailored for each student to meet their interests and support their career goals.
Seminars coupled with the research program of a faculty sponsor or advisor. Of the 18-credit seminar requirement, no more than 6 should be research seminar credits.
Doctoral students are required to take a minimum of 18 credits of doctoral seminars. Seminars prepare students for the comprehensive examination and for doctoral research. (Prerequisites: Enrollment in the doctoral program information science)